The signature theme of Complex Materials builds on strengths in the physical and biological sciences and leverages our vibrant collaborations with the Ames Laboratory. The focus is on the synthesis, characterization, and modeling of new or enhanced materials with controlled properties. Specific topics of interest include rare earth compounds, novel magnetic materials, biofunctionalized nanostructures, and catalytic processes. Experimental and computational/theoretical work is, and will continue to be, closely integrated. This research is critically important for major societal needs, ranging from energy-related technologies to the remediation of environmental pollutants. As we move from discovery to technology transfer, expertise from the social sciences and humanities will be integrated, ranging from survey design to social and economic valuations of technological solutions and science policy.